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I've never used that distro ...
The command-line way of doing things is, sadly, the only thing that is conserved across the systems. The "user-friendly" way of doing things varies wildly from one distro to another.
As for the black-screen — it is practically impossible to give an advice, because I'm not really sure whether I would be able to do anything with it even when I had physical access to the computer; leave alone doing this kind of diagnosis at a distance.
But since you are speaking about arguments ... could you tell me the boot parameters? (I believe you have already found how to get them.) The first reasonable thing would be to delete the "quiet" parameter, if present (and it is present for 99% of the time, since if it isn't specified, your terminals are flooded with lots of kernel diagnostics). Maybe you can get some useful insight into what's going on.
As for the wine: the simplest way of checking whether something is installed is just trying to use it, so I'd recommend firing up a terminal and trying
wine --versionor perhaps
which wine. It doesn't really matter. If wine is not present, you get an error message saying that nothing called "wine" could be found. If it is present, the first says (surprisingly) what version of wine is installed; the second says where exactly in the filesystem is the wine executable located.
If it turns out that there is truly a wine installed, then you may try to move yourself into a directory which contains an EXE file (exactly like in DOS, there is a
cdcommand for that; one of the more notable differences is that the path separator is a forward-slash instead of a backslash, so if you want to go into directory b contained in directory a, you would do
cd a/b). When you're there, just use
wine (filename)to run it.